>> Facts about Cleeve
Facts about Cleeve
Cleeve takes its name from the cliff that rises above the
village and is known as the Toot. The
first mention of "Clyve in the Manor of Jatton" is dated 1263. This small parish covers two square miles and
lies on either side of the A370 road from Bristol to Weston-Super-Mare. Cleeve was part of the civil parish of Yatton
until 1949, although it had been a separate ecclesiastical parish since 1843,
following the dedication of Holy Trinity Church in 1840.
The Village Context and Landscaping Setting
The village lies at 30m above sea level below a limestone
ridge that rises steeply to 150m. The
ridge is now almost entirely covered in woodland so that the rock of the
"Toot" is no longer visible.
There are two beautiful combes, Cleeve Combe and Goblin Combe, on either
side of the ridge. Almost half of the
parish is covered by this woodland. The
west part is an ancient wood called King's Wood where iron ore and possibly
lead were mined for hundreds of years.
The limestone in both the east and west parts has been extensively
quarried and used for building and the making of lime. The east part of the parish was used for
common grazing until the Enclosure Act of 1810, since when it has become covered
in trees. On the north side of the
settlement lie fertile, well-drained slopes and low-lying moorland bordering
the Bristol Channel.
Prehistoric artefacts have been found. There are the remains of two Iron Age
enclosures near the Toot, (as well as a number in King's Wood), a possible Romano-British
settlement on the Batch, and an 11th century farmstead has been excavated on
the edge of King's Wood.
A recent article in The Guardian talked about Goblin Combe, the full article can be found here: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/jan/08/country-diary-limestone-heath-calcicoles-calcifuges-somerset
'Goblin Combe, Somerset This is one of those rare habitats where lime-hating and lime-loving plants suck together from the same earth, roots entangled.
There is no doubt when you are on the carboniferous limestone. Crags jut out as if the rock is struggling to release itself from its turfy skin, shedding broken stones. Sheep’s fescue, rockrose, kidney vetch and many more lime-loving species form the distinctive close-knit grassland. The signature of this rock is written all over the hill.
At Goblin Combe we cross the limestone turf, heading for my favourite slope. Melted frost has touched every leaf with diamonds and pin-cushioned the anthills with rainbow spangles. And then – so suddenly – wine-dark mounds of bell heather. Lime-hating heather, among all those lime-lovers!
This is limestone heath, an ecological oxymoron: it should not exist. Plants such as heather, wood sage, goldenrod and tormentil – all found here – are calcifuges (a term derived from the Latin to flee from chalk), preferring an acidic soil. However, limestone soil is strongly alkaline, and has its own suite of species (called calcicoles). How can it be that all these plants suck together from the same earth, roots entangled, on certain limestone slopes (including parts of Dolebury Warren)?'
written by: Dawn Lawrence
The Natural Environment
The ancient woodlands to the east of the A370 are a major
feature of Cleeve and a haven for a variety of wildlife. Grey herons have been known to nest and roost
in the trees at the Brockley end of Cleeve since well before the 18th
century. The present heronry, inhabited
since 1968, is situated behind Cleeve Nursery on the north side of these
Goblin Combe is a wooded, steep sided valley with extensive
areas of limestone cliff and scree. The
far end is a nature reserve on lease to the Avon Wildlife Trust, who manage
it. Goblin Combe was made an SSSI under
Section 29 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act in 1999 and is now managed by
Groundworks. Goblin Combe Environment
Centre is part of Groundworks. It
supports semi-natural ancient woodland, which is now limited in Great
Britain. There is a wide variety of
trees, ferns and ground flora and a number of nationally rare plant species
including the stinking hellebore.
King’s Wood is to the south of Cleeve Hill Road and is under
private ownership. Together with Urchin
Wood (adjoining but in the parish of Congresbury) it represents one of the
largest areas of ancient woodland in North Somerset. The presence of boundary banks and large
pollarded small-leaved lime trees on the periphery suggests that some of the
boundaries have remained unchanged for centuries. In 1990 the area was made an SSSI under
Section 28 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act (1981). It supports nationally important populations
of endangered and rare Greater Horseshoe Bats and Dormice, both of which are
protected under the Wildlife and Countryside Act. The disused mine workings in King’s Wood are
used by the bats both for hibernation and nursery roosts, but their foraging
areas must be protected. A condition set
by North Somerset Council granting Bristol Airport permission to expand
particularly protects the bat’s habitats. Among the large variety of trees and flora, is
the nationally rare Purple Gromwell and scarce Angular Solomon’s Seal.
The Built Environment
Cleeve is designated in the Core Strategy as a Green Belt
village, reflecting a Government policy which balances the need for housing
development with the protection and enhancement of a high quality environment.
The village developed around the 19th century
turnpike road from Bristol to Congresbury, now the A370. The road enters the village at the Brockley
boundary and leaves halfway up Rhodyate Hill.
Two subsidiary roads intercept the A370; Cleeve Hill Road (formerly
known as Plunder Street) joining the village with Wrington, and Bishops Road
joining the village with Claverham.
Until the 1930s the residential part of the village developed around
these roads with the rest of the agricultural land being occupied by small
farms. In the post-war years residential
development was concentrated in a relatively small area, mostly between the
A370 and Bishops Road.
The Old School and
The character of the village derives from its buildings and
their setting in the natural landscape.
The buildings can be classified into two groups. The older part of the village lying largely
outside the settlement area includes two houses of mediaeval origin: Goblin
Combe Farm and Little Manor/Perry Orchard.
Before the 17th century Walnut Tree and Yew Tree Farms were
built and a number of others derive from the 18th century or
later. Other notable buildings include
Cleeve Court Nursing Home which stands alone, whereas the Village School (now
Goblin Combe Environment Centre), the Old School House, and the old Chapel are
clustered around the common land in front of the quarry. These old buildings, eight of which are grade
2 listed, are predominately built in local limestone, are gable ended with clay
tiles, and have small divided windows.
Cleeve Court Nursing Home differs in having a slate roof and mullioned
leaded windows. The Nelson Inn, now the
Lord Nelson, was a small inn and posting house for horses. It is now the only public house in the
village. Throughout this older part of
the village, fields and curtilages are separated by hedges and limestone walls,
and most of the modern dwellings fit into this general pattern.
Warner Close, most
In the first half of the 20th century a number of
bungalows and semi-detached houses were built along the main road, Millier Road
and Bishops Road. In the 1950s an
assortment of dwellings were added together with council houses in Woodview
Drive and Bishops Mead, to be followed by Cleeve Drive and in the late 1960s by
partly wood-cladded houses in Graitney Close.
Warner Close, the only open-plan development, is the most recent
addition, a mix of brick-built houses in a variety of styles, mostly
gable-ended but some hipped with cement tiles.
These buildings, especially the three shops, seem to have moved the
village centre away from “Old” Cleeve in the vicinity of the Cleeve Nursery, to
“New” Cleeve in the vicinity of the shops, the pub, the village hall and the King
George V Playing Field. New housing
development in the form of infilling within the settlement boundary will be
limited as almost all the land is already occupied.
Stone walls, hedges, and mature trees are typical of
Cleeve. There are some splendid limes
and poplars in and around the playing field, a magnificent stand of some beech
bordering the orchard of Cleeve Cottage, and a huge sycamore in Woodview
Drive. Throughout the village, wherever
there is space (e.g. the lay-by near Cleeve Nursery, known as Heron Green,
Pound Green, the village hall grounds and in most gardens), and in the
surrounding fields and hedgerows, a great variety of new trees are growing.
There are, inevitably, some commercial buildings which do
not blend well into the village. The
electrical pylons and 162kV power cables, which predate much of the settlement
and (unusually) cross directly through the middle of the settlement area, are
universally disliked and are seen as unsightly and potentially damaging to
Until recent years agriculture was the main occupation in
Cleeve. The ideal climate and land for
grazing determined the landscape in which the village was set – modest farms
with small fields with rich grass for livestock; ancient hedgerows and surrounding
woodland. As recently as thirty years
ago there were at least eight dairy farms; now they are mostly gone. Livestock farming continues but
diversification (bed and breakfast, outside jobs and part-time farming etc) has
offered a survival strategy, but not a comfortable return.
Early occupations in the village were:
In the present day the largest employer is Cleeve Court
Nursing Home and the largest business is Cleeve Nursery. Other businesses include the newsagent,
hairdresser, beauty salons, boarding kennels, cattery, painter &
decorators, bed and breakfast, light industry, contractors and three take-aways
among others. Changing circumstances and
a shift away from farming on a small scale, have made Cleeve a dormitory
village, a large number of the inhabitants working in or near Bristol or
Weston-Super-Mare and travelling there by road and rail.
Transportation: Accessibility and Mobility
The bus service to Bristol and Weston-Super-Mare is good and
Yatton station is only two miles away by road.
The bus service to Yatton and Clevedon is also good. School buses run to Backwell School. A walking bus is in place for local children
attending Court de Wyck Primary School.
An installed pedestrian crossing has helped residents with
what was becoming an increasing problem to cross the busy main road
Bristol International Airport in 2011 was granted planning
permission by North Somerset Council to expand to 10 million passengers.
Recreation and Tourism
The Sinclair Pavilion in the King George V Playing Field is
the base for several football teams, and both senior and junior cricket teams,
and skittle teams. The Cleeve Tennis
Club has its home court and pavilion alongside a children’s play area, and
there is a multi-games wall provided by the National Playing Fields
Association. The Parish Council has
provided a youth shelter as a meeting place for the youth of the village.
The old school at the entrance of Goblin Come is the
headquarters of the Goblin Combe Environment Centre which runs a variety of
courses for adults and young people concentrating on the natural
environment. The village quarry, from
which much of the stones for the houses and walls typical of Cleeve was
obtained in the 19th century and before, provides car parking for
those who wish to walk in Goblin Combe or King’s Wood.
The Millennium Garden behind Bishops Mead is managed by the Parish Council.
The village quarry and the cliffs on the north side of
Goblin Combe are very popular with rock climbers.